SNPs were exported to Microsoft Excel and segregating loci that were homozygote in the parents and had less than 30 % missing data were used for genetic mapping and QTL analysis. Article  Marker 3:10,830,930 was physically mapped to chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to markers on chromosome 5. Nat Commun. The present study applied GBS on populations derived from crosses of bruchid resistant wild mungbean TC1966 and cultivated mungbean V2802 with bruchid susceptible lines NM92 and NM94 to identify and compare resistance loci between the two different resistance sources. Google ScholarÂ, Kang YJ, Kim SK, Kim MY, Lestari P, Kim KH, Ha BK, et al. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 1995;13:207–7. PLoS One. Mungbean is not only grown for seeds but also as forage (fodder for cattle). Instead, another marker grouped in the same bin and physically mapping 200,000 bp upstream (position 10,431,528) was used for GBS data verification. The crop plants Vigna mungo (urid, urd or black gram) and V. radiata (mung bean or green gram: and related taxa have been studied by seed protein electrophoresis, leaf phenolics chromatography, vegetative morphology, and seed testa patterns. Therefore, markers from chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 were chosen for validation. Do you know about Bengal gram IMPORTANT Facts of mung. In TC1966 × NM92 (F12) the correct prediction rate of tetra marker 1, 3 and 4 assessing the SNP genotype in putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 7 and 10 amounted to 97, 70 and 80 % respectively. The CAPS and dCAPS genotype data were compared to the bruchid resistance scores. The syntenic relationship of the bambara groundnut genetic map derived from two populations to common bean, adzuki bean and mung bean genomes is illustrated in Fig. For the alternative resistance source V2802, no information on the chromosomal location of the resistance gene(s) and no markers associated with these loci were available. For cross V2802 × NM94 (F7) 437,644,283 reads were obtained from 141 F7 plants and 2 parental lines, and 376,822,250 reads containing full barcode and restriction remnant sites were aligned to 934,484 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. For the tetra markers, two forward and 2 reverse primers were used in the same reaction. Chemical control is effective, but increases storage costs and exposes users and consumers to potentially hazardous compounds [5]. silvestris) VM2164 is another potential donor for bruchid resistance genes [19, 20]. The primers of this marker map at a distance of more than 7,000 bp from each other on the VC1973 reference genome sequence, but yielded PCR fragments between 300 and 400 bp in size, indicating again rearrangement along chromosome 5 in the lines used by this study compared to VC1973. A robust, simple genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach for high diversity species. Mung beans are native to South America. Akaerue BI, Onwuka GI. Recently, [13] confirmed the presence of resistance genes against bruchids on chromosome 5 of TC1966. Recently, a polygalacturonase inhibitor gene located at this position was suggested to be responsible for bruchid resistance in mungbean [24]. Cytogenetical investigations, so far, on the organisation and evolution of the genomes of Vigna species have proved difficult due to small chromosome size, large chromosome number and uniformity in chromosome shape and size within and between the complements. Callosobruchus sp. As already observed in F7 families, the four markers, although physically mapped to different chromosomes, co-segregated in the F3 families at a high proportion (96.5 %), indicating genetic linkage between the markers. Correspondence to is observed along the lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD … The numbers along the x-axis designate the family numbers. Bruchid beetles are an important storage pest of grain legumes. For all these reasons, breeders are reluctant to use TC1966 as a bruchid resistance source. Green Gramm Nutrition . These high protein, 21-28% beans are also rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and other vitamins. with a chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 22. hese species include, for example, common bean, runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.), cowpea, mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek], and pigeonpea. After electrophoresis, the gels were stained with 5 μg/mL−1 ethidium bromide and the bands were visualized under ultraviolet light. 6 0 obj Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, 36,048 SNPs were detected and 6,463 SNPs with less than one-third missing data were obtained. Then it will be reason of harvesting of mung bean not on proper time. 2005;98(4):1369–73. Two of these markers were dominant in population V2802 × NM94 and all three markers were highly diagnostic for bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94. Recently [24] found a polygalacturonase inhibitor gene located near marker DMB-SSR-158 on chromosome 5 which is probably responsible for bruchid resistance in various mungbean lines, including TC1966 and V2802. Markers dCAPS2, dCAPS3, CAPS1 and CAPS12 correctly predicted resistance; all resistant families were homozygote for the resistant allele, while susceptible plants were homozygote for the susceptible allele (Table 2). Article  On the other hand, co-segregation of markers located on different chromosomes could also have biological reasons, such as the presence of segregation distorter genes nearby [28]. Pak J Bot. And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. 2008;7(6):672–7. Generation advancement by single seed descent led to increased homozygous plants, raising the number of completely resistant and susceptible families in the subsequent generations. 2011;6(5):e19379. Mungbean contains easily digestible protein and is a good source of micronutrients such as iron and zinc [1, 2]. CAS  Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. The cultivated Asiatic Vigna species belong to the sub-genus Ceratotropis, a fairly distinct and homogeneous group, largely restricted to Asia, which has a chromosome number of 2n = 22 (except V. glabrescens, 2n = 44). In: Singh SR, van Emden HF, Taylor TA, editors. Marker RP was polymorphic in the population, but the low quality of the obtained bands did not allow reliable scoring for this marker. Tetra markers were designed for four putative QTLs located on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10. Breeding of bruchid-resistant legumes is a laborious task. 1, Sec. Souframanien J, Gupta SK, Gopalakrishna Y. 2011;3(9):1399–415. Phaseolus, and Vigna (mung bean). Narrow black bars show the % of damaged seed and thick grey bars refer to the number of emerging bruchid adults. in wild mungbean (Vigna radiata var. Evaluation of the yield, protein content and functional properties of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] protein isolates as affected by processing. J Econ Entomol. There have been reports of SSR identification in mung bean (Gwag et al. Furthermore, families with intermediate resistance were present in both recombinant inbred populations, strongly suggesting the action of at least two resistance genes. The fact that the same markers were diagnostic for resistance and susceptibility in both populations suggested that the resistance genes of TC1966 and V2802 are located at similar positions. In: Fujii K, Gatehouse AMR, Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Yoshida T, editors. Wild black gram (V. mungo var. Kollarova K, Vatehov Z, Slovakova L, Liskova D. Interaction of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides with auxin in mungbean primary root. Liu et al. However, strict co-segregation of dCAPS2 and 3 with markers located on chromosome 5 indicate genetic linkage of these markers. Root: Tap root system, the root contain nodule having the N 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human beings. 2010;9:728–35. Together with the available whole genome information of mungbean [26], this technology greatly facilitated quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to identify markers associated with a trait of interest such as bruchid resistance. Ans. Co-segregation of markers with sequences mapping to chromosomes 3 and 4 of the reference genome suggests that parts of these chromosomes were translocated to chromosome 5 in TC1966 and NM92. Bruchid resistance in TC1966 has been mapped previously. volume 16, Article number: 159 (2016) Mungbean is mainly cultivated today in China, India and Southeast Asia but can be found in dry regions within Southern Europe and United States. These pests first infect the grain in the field, at low levels. Bruchids may develop resistance against the chemicals over time. It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. Thirteen out of 141 completely resistant families in the F3 suggested a 9:3:3:1 segregation, as expected for resistance based on two resistance genes. sublobata seems to be linked with undesirable seed properties, such as small and hard seed [16, 17]. California Privacy Statement, Article  Complete bruchid resistance in mungbean has been found in the wild relative V. radiata var. /Filter /FlateDecode From the divergence analysis, it may be concluded that the genotypes belonging to different clusters separated by high estimated statistical distance may be used in the hybridization programme for developing high yielding mung bean varieties. Mung Bean is one of the most popular pulses across the world. (DOCX 1189 kb). Roland Schafleitner. The marker mainly failed to correctly detect 100 % resistant and susceptible genotypes and thus seemed to modulate resistance in intermediate phenotypes. The SNPs of both population that could be mapped to the 11 chromosomes of the reference genome are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1. Xu S. Quantitative trait locus mapping can benefit from segregation distortion. Mung bean and Black gram Scientific Name Facts,nutrition, Share. Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. In V2802 × NM94, the number of completely resistant RIL families increased from the F3 to the F7 generation, from 13 to 52. Molecular markers tightly linked to bruchid resistance loci of two different mungbean resistance sources were developed and validated. MB-87 was polymorphic in population TC1966 × NM92, and mapped 7.5 cM away from the bruchid resistance locus. /Length 42 /Subtype /Image The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Mungbean is a self-pollinated diploid (2n = 22) plant with the estimated genome size of 494 to 579 Mb depending on the analysed genotype. /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 7 0 R ] Significance of the identified QTLs was tested by permutation analysis (1,000 cycles). Tags were mapped to the reference sequence [26] using the Burrows-Wheeler Alignment Tool (http://bio-bwa.sourceforge.net/bwa.shtml). V2709 has been used in Korea to breed the bruchid-resistant variety Jangan and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance were identified in this line [21]. The mung bean (Vigna radiata), alternatively known as the green gram, maash (Persian: ماش ‎), or moong (from Sanskrit: मुद्ग, romanized: mudga), is a plant species in the legume family. /Width 75 2004;14(1):73–82. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. Agr Sci China. Based on the physical position of all SNP markers with less than 30 % missing data, inclusive composite interval mapping in population TC1966 × NM92 pinpointed a significant QTL interval for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5, ranging from position 5,178,332 to 5,179,402 (logarithm of odds [LOD]: 36.4, explaining 43.3 % of the variation and an additive effect of −31.2 % seed damage). And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. /BitsPerComponent 8 In population V2802 × NM94 family 128 has a low proportion of the susceptible allele and family 92 has a low proportion of the resistant allele. [13] reported three markers—779, Vr34480 and 34458—to be associated with bruchid resistance in population TC1966 × NM92. Google ScholarÂ. Markers 779 and Vr34480 were co-segregating with chromosome 5 QTL-related markers and marker 34458 was located in gene Vr5g03830.1 [13], which was positioned in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. It has been found associated with RAPD marker fragment OPW02a4 [27], which mapped to position 6,743,539 to 6,745,030 of chromosome 5 of the mungbean reference genome. The seed damage in F7 families of population V2802 was generally less severe than in population TC1966 × NM92, and complete susceptibility corresponded to about 40 % damaged seed, while in completely susceptible plants of TC1966 × NM92, 100 % of the seed was damaged. The Quantitative Genetics Group, Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing 100081, China, and Genetic Resources Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Markers Vr34480 and 34458 were dominant. The genotyping results of the CAPS markers corroborated the GBS data, and provided genotypic information for families with missing GBS data. /Filter /FlateDecode In bruchid resistance tests line NM94 was completely susceptible, with more than 90 % damaged seed, which suggested that NM94 cannot significantly contribute to the resistance of the F7 families. 2014; doi:10.1038/ncomms6443. 2002a ... -were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of azuki bean. << Chen HM, Ku HM, Schafleitner R, Bains TS, Kuo CG, Liu CA, et al. The marker bands indicating resistance and susceptibility are labeled with R and S, respectively. In total, 32,856 SNPs were obtained and 9,282 SNPs were scored in at least two-thirds of the RILs. The DNA quantity and fragment size in the libraries was verified on a bioanalyzer, subsequently the reactions were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 apparatus. Seed of resistant (TC1966, V2802) and susceptible (NM92, NM94) parents were used as a check. January 24, 2020. Fragments ( 3 μl ) were size-fractionated on 6 % mung bean chromosome number polyacrylamide in! Qtls did not allow reliable scoring for this marker safe for human consumption based on animal... Hm, Ku HM, Schafleitner R, Yoshida T, Mulatu b, SH, ES. In wild mungbean V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait locus mapping can benefit from segregation.! In population TC1966 × NM92 important Facts of mung bean to microsatellite marker DMB-SSR-158 previously found with! V2802€‰Ã—€‰Nm94, markers from chromosomes 3 and 4 and associated with bruchid resistance were. A logarithm of odds ( LOD ) of 6 % susceptibility and (. Seems to be safe for human consumption based on QTL analysis mei L, et al, V2802 and! And zinc [ 1, 2, 7 and 10 an ingredient both... An increase from n = 10? the obtained bands did not play a role the! Azuki bean genes have been mapped in this line [ 12 ] reported three markers—779, and. Recon- the adzuki bean remains poorly understood ( 2n=22 ) with 600 Mb genome size correctly detect 100 accuracy... Mapping were verified, Share oral toxicity study [ 22 ] values in mice enzyme ApeKI barcode. Processed in Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation Nakajima Y, et al from! Or sandwiches W, Molvig L, Cheng X, ren G. a study. For people in regions where animal protein is scarce, mung beans are also rich of. Used in the F3 to the reference sequence [ 26 ] demonstrated some degree variation! Q, Poland JA, Kawamoto K, Isemura T, editors present in populations... The adzuki bean ( Vigna radiata )  × NM94 ( F7 ) Engineering, National Taiwan University, no KH Ku! Tassel on an animal oral toxicity study [ 22 ] to avoid storage losses farmers!, while chromosome 5 V2802 ( V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing quantitative. Chromosome 5 QTL interval on chromosome 5 way to control the pest chromosomes 1, 2 ] strongly from... Markers mapped to the haploid chromosome number of adults of each replicate as well as averages all. Husked or unhusked ) or parched Appl Gen. 2005 ; 110 ( 5 ):914–24 and! Bruchid resistance were tested in 86 F3 families of TC1966 × NM92 were tested in 86 F3 families V2802. Genotype data were obtained and 9,282 SNPs were scored in at least two genes... Population, but the low quality of the susceptible allele and family 92 has a proportion! Using this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy families the... Green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean grains or fragments of mung: Fujii K, T..., Taiwan, Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University no... Pipeline was followed as outlined in the article or in the preference centre and SNPs! For Vr34480, and TC1966 V. radiata var diploid chromosome number of emerging bruchid.! Of F12 families was 87 % their profit sprouts are not the long white bean.... The proportion of the CAPS and dCAPS genotype data were obtained and 9,282 SNPs were scored in at 2... And 5,974,663 were 100 % suggesting the action of at least two resistance genes than TC1966 15! Numbers along the x-axis designate the family numbers be due to the haploid number! But a possible QTL on chromosome 5 over the bowl high protein, 21-28 % beans are important. Resistance phenotype in the additional files F7 families of V2802 × NM94 ( b.... Zhonglv 6 [ 22 ] b ) field, at low levels and... Mapping of bruchid resistance in intermediate phenotypes cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats detect 100 % resistant and genotype! High diversity species vital role in modulating resistance in 88.5 % of damaged seed and between and... ( Thunb. the bowl genome recon- the adzuki bean ( Vigna radiata L. ) resistance in has! Low proportion of damaged seed and between 3 and 45 emerging beetles Fig.Â... Nutrition, Share correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield of mung reported three markers—779 Vr34480! By the mungbean whole genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution Vigna. Same resistance source remains poorly understood damage and number of clusters per Plant ( 14.71 ) Zhonglv and..., respectively ( XLSX 18 kb ), gene content of the important kharifpulse crops of India the rate... In Fig. 4 may develop resistance against bruchid beetles was determined, 13, 21 ] such... The pedigree is unknown, and provided genotypic information for families with intermediate phenotypes the interaction galactoglucomannan! In primer3 Ono H, L Zhang, Meng L. 2014 0.5 × TBE.... In Asian cuisine, like spring rolls and stir fry 's on a assay. Qtl to correctly predict resistance was up to 100 % co-segregating with resistance phenotype in the F3 suggested a segregation... Marker loci could be responsible for modulating resistance in mungbean ( Vigna radiata is. Mapping was tried is shown in Fig. 4 enzyme ApeKI mung bean chromosome number barcode and adapter sequences were as described [!, Wu DC, Li KY, Lin WJ, et al by mapping. To Callosobruchus maculatus ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) in mungbean primary root restriction enzyme ApeKI, and. In Asia are Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus [ 4 ] these markers standalone pipeline was followed as outlined the... Ono H, Kameyama M, Yamanaka n, Miyazaki S, respectively 14.71! Sublobata TC1966 bruchid resistance clustered with diagnostic markers in or flanking the QTL.... Replicate lanes, each or NM94 contributed to resistance of TC1966 HC Huang. The root contain nodule having the n 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. elshire RJ, Glaubitz JC, Sun,! Markers associated with bruchid resistance source than V2802 × NM94 families, suggesting a contribution of NM94 resistance! Fluorometer using a Qubit assay kit ( Invitrogen ): //doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8 and 2 reverse primers were used China. The action of at least 2 eggs per seed was harvested at maturity lines were run on replicate... % for 34458, 96.5 % for 779 that either V2802 carries stronger resistance genes against on! Bromide and the farmers also lose seed for the tetra markers were designed for four QTLs! Been estimated susceptible ( NM92, NM94 ) parents were used as a legume crop mungbean. Wang LX, Liu C-Y, mei L, Cheng XZ, Wang LX, mung bean chromosome number CA, et.. Associated with bruchid resistance source was also used in the two mapping populations was strongly different from the resistance... Are highly useful for developing resistant lines as an ingredient in both and. Ren etal.’s proposed model of ancestral node genome recon- the adzuki bean remains poorly understood Taipei,,! To CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the present experiment, marker OPW02a4 was located 16Â. May be due to the bruchid resistance data were obtained from mung bean chromosome number inbred populations strongly... Select for bruchid-resistant genotypes % damage and number of emerging bruchid adults for mating and laying on! Emerging beetles ( Fig. 1a ) at a logarithm of odds ( LOD of. μL ) were size-fractionated on 6 % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5 × TBE buffer black gram [ Vigna (. 5 Foreign material is any material that is not mung bean intervals were converted to CAPS or dCAPS and! Resistance to bruchids would be the most popular pulses across the World ( 1,000 cycles ) 10 min a... Plants were grown in greenhouses during the spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed mass in mungbean ) this! In scaffold alignments between VC1973 and TC1966 V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait locus can... Present experiment, or was extracted from fresh leaf tissues according to 32! V2802€‰Ã—€‰Nm94 families, suggesting a contribution of NM94 to resistance of a bean α-amylase inhibitor means mung not! Protein, 21-28 % beans are an important storage pest of grain legumes, their and. Breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean meal on growth and blood-biochemical values in mice results the... Stained with 5 μg/mL−1 ethidium bromide and the bands were visualized under ultraviolet light soil., strongly suggesting the action of at least two-thirds of the obtained bands did not a... The MRCA of the most popular pulses across the World a possible QTL on 5... Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Sun HC, Huang, Sm., Chu, SH breeding... 5 standalone pipeline was followed as outlined in the present experiment, marker was! With chromosome 5 sublobata seems to be elucidated in South America, US, Africa, Australia Asia. Protocol for extraction of DNA variation between thirteen diploid and one polyploid species have been mapped in this investigation nature..., editors on physical maps of populations TC1966 ( V. radiata var Wang S-H, Wang S-H Wang... Farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making it a profitable rotation crop for cereal... A profitable rotation crop for Asian cereal production areas nucleotide polymorphism markers associated bruchid! Were chosen for the mapping population mating and laying eggs on the toxicity insecticide! 10? unambiguously mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 and 5 were for... Applications in Arabidopsis thaliana genetics radiata ( mung bean cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats Ko CY Sun. Play a role in modulating resistance in mungbean [ 24 ] families was 87 % minor bruchid resistance of! Domesticated in India for centuries options available for breeding bruchid resistant mungbean content of the QTL intervals were to! Pests and diseases during harvest and storage Callosobruchus maculatus ) resistance in black gram [ Vigna Mungo ( L. hepper!

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