But this is more than a nut tree. Chinese Chestnut. Many cultivars are very cold tolerant. Castanea mollissima (Chinese Chestnut) is a medium sized deciduous tree with a short trunk and an open rounded crown adorned with wide-spreading branches. Buckeye trees have fans of five leaves while American and horse chestnut leaves are spans of six or seven. (We have also purchased replacement Chinese Chestnut trees from you this spring to replace what we have lost). Its medium to dark green, oblong, linear leaves are 3 to 6 inches long. Following devastation of the American Chestnut by the chestnut blight, the Chinese Chestnut has been used as a substitute for our native tree. Fragrant, creamy white and yellow-hued blooms cover the tree for a brief time in late spring. Chinese chestnut reaches a height and spread of about 40 feet in a sunny, open exposure and a well-drained soil. The Chinese chestnut tree has brown, strongly ridged and furrowed bark. in diameter. Chinese chestnut Chinese chestnut is resistant to chestnut blight which has almost wiped out the American chestnut. Burs are at the end of the branch with up to 3 nuts per bur. Castanea Castanea. The leaves of chestnut trees are lanceolate and ovate. [4] Japanese chestnut is also comparatively resistant to blight, with European chestnut somewhat less so. Subtle but radiant fall leaves follow in autumn to accompany the sweet chestnuts. Asian chestnuts include Castanea mollissima (Chinese chestnut), Castanea henryi (Chinese chinkapin, also called Henry's chestnut – China), Castanea seguinii (also called Seguin's chestnut – China) and Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut, Korean chestnut). As the American chestnut struggles with disease, the blight-resistant Chinese chestnut is quick gaining popularity. Here are all three types of leaves next to each other. In the 1890s, Chinese and Japanese chestnuts were imported to the United States with the intention of utilizing them as orchard trees due to their small, compact size compared to the towering American chestnut. [6] Some cultivars, such as 'Kuling', 'Meiling', and 'Nanking', have large nuts up to 4 cm diameter. Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. Chinese chestnut trees grow leaves with fine, fuzzy hairs on the lower surface. The leaf is spade shaped, with a rounded bottom and is characteristically wider in the other third of the leaf. Noteworthy Characteristics Castanea mollissima, commonly called Chinese chestnut, is native to China and possibly Korea. Long-stalked, deciduous, palmate green leaves … It is hardy from zone 4, and resistant to heat and humidity. This is a deciduous tree, so it loses the leaves in the winter, but makes up for it with a striking bare silhouette. It has interesting scented flowers in late spring, burr-like fruits containing two or three large edible chestnuts, and beautiful golden-yellow fall leaves. The Chinese species is not used as a residential or street tree because of the smell of the flowers and the fruit, nut and leaf litter shed annually. [1], It is a deciduous tree growing to 20 m tall with a broad crown. It usually branches close to the ground making it a good candidate for a specimen or as a tree to climb. The leaves are glossy and dark green. With the presence of the fungus across both Asia and North America, the American chestnut is no longer planted and usually never seen as a stately specimen tree. Flowers of the Chinese Chestnut are particularly foul smelling, and reportedly can spoil a late-spring barbecue. Smooth and chestnut-brown in color when young, later shallowly fissured into flat ridges. The leaves are dark green with a toothed margin and 3-5″ long. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is a coarse textured tree of the Fagaceae family native to China, Korea and Taiwan. Castanea mollissima (Chinese: 板栗; pinyin: bǎnlì), also known as the Chinese chestnut, is a member of the family Fagaceae, and a species of chestnut native to China, Taiwan, and Korea. The Chinese Chestnut is a wonderful large shade tree that is often planted alone for the beauty and shade it provides. Most of established Chestnuts are Chinese, and they have a very distinctive apple tree shape, rounded with multi-stemmed trunk (see next column). This non-native species produces spikes of creamy white flowers in summer. It is glossy and heavier than American leaves. The nuts are edible, and the tree is widely cultivated in eastern Asia; over 300 cultivars have been selected for nut production, subdivided into five major regional groups: Northern, Yangtze River Valley, Sichuan and Guizhou, Southern, and Southwestern. To me the leaves … The edible nuts develop in sharp, spiny husks. The disease was first noticed on a tree in the Brooklyn Zoo in 1904 and quickly spread all out of control, ravaging American chestnuts. When cultivated close to other species of chestnut (including Japanese chestnut, C. crenata; American chestnut, C. dentata; and sweet chestnut, C. sativa), Chinese chestnut readily cross-pollinates with them to form hybrids. The flowers are produced in catkins 4–20 cm long, with the female flowers at the base of the catkin and males on the rest. In fall the leaves turn yellow/copper. The four major species of chestnut trees are the American chestnuts, European chestnuts, Japanese chestnuts and Chinese chestnuts. Its flowers are pungent, and its nuts quite sweet. The sweet-tasting nuts are often roasted for holiday eating and have been made famous in turkey stuffing recipes across the country. The species prefers full sun and acidic, loamy soil, and has a medium growth rate. According to the American Chestnut Foundation, there are several ways in which to identify whether a tree is an American chestnut or a Chinese chestnut, although this does begin to prove more difficult with later generation hybrids, as they more closely resemble true Americans. Mature leaves are light green and paper-thin, and droop down from the twigs. Chinese chestnut has a pleasingly round crown and is often selected as a hardy street tree. Some individuals are quite susceptible while others are essentially immune to the disease. SA is Southern American Pure Chestnut, C is Chinese, and F1 is a first generation hybrid between the American and Chinese Chestnut. Chestnuts grow on the trees inside spikey burs, each about an inch (2.5 cm.) The fruit is a densely spiny cupule 4–8 cm diameter, containing two or three glossy brown nuts; these are 2–3 cm diameter on wild trees. The Chinese chestnut is used as a substitute for the American chestnut, becoming a shade tree for large landscapes. It got introduced in 1853 and 1903. Chinese is gray-brown to brown, rapidly becoming furrowed, but without distinguishable patterns. For the other similarly named chestnut species, see, Dr. Greg Miller, Empire Chestnut Company, FAQ, http://www.empirechestnut.com/faqpests.htm, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Castanea_mollissima&oldid=948724574, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 April 2020, at 18:03. Frosts and snowfalls are beneficial rather than harmful to the trees. It grows close to sea level in the north of its range, and at altitudes of up to 2,800 m in the south of the range. The Chinese Chestnut Tree is eye-catching and stands on its own. 3. Naturally an understory tree[citation needed], Chinese chestnut has been cultivated in East Asia for millennia and its exact original range cannot be determined. Horse chestnut leaves are much larger than buckeyes or American chestnuts. It is a medium sized, low-branched, deciduous tree that typically grows 40’ (less frequently to 60’) tall with an open rounded crown. Chinese Chestnut Burs: A sparse mass of short, thick spines Spines are 1 to 2 cm long, 1 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur American Leaf (left): Leaf is long in relation to its width Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle at the end of each tooth curves inward Base of leaf blade tapers sharply Leaf is very thin and papery Chinese Leaf (right): Chestnuts produce a better crop when subjected to chill temperatures during the dormant period. In Vietnam, Chinese chestnut (Vietnamese language: hạt dẻ, Tày language: mác lịch) which are grown in Trùng Khánh district, Cao Bằng province have highest quality with 3.3-5.4% glucose, 43.36- 46.47% glucid, 1.16 – 2% lipid, 3.12 – 3.62% protein analyzed by Vietnam National Vegetable and Fruit Researching Institution in 1999. Chinese chestnut trees grow leaves with fine, fuzzy hairs on the lower surface. American Chestnut Tree (Castanea dentate) American chestnut trees are large deciduous trees that … Aesculus chinensis, commonly called Chinese horse chestnut or Chinese buckeye, is a rounded deciduous tree that typically grows to 30-40' (less frequently to 70') tall. The Chinese Chestnut tree nuts are large and sweet, though not as sweet as an American Chestnut. American Leaf (left): Leaf is long in relation to its width Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle at the end of each tooth curves inward Base of leaf blade tapers sharply Leaf is very thin and papery, Chinese Leaf (right): Leaf is oval-shaped Teeth are smaller Base of leaf blade is rounded Leaf is thick and waxy-feeling, American Leaf (left): Elongated leaf Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle on teeth curves inward Blade tapers sharply to meet stem at base of leaf blade Light green underside on leaves exposed to the sun, Chinese Leaf (right): Oval-shaped leaf Small teeth on edge Base of leaf blade rounded Underside of sun leaves look whitish because of many hairs, Pointed buds that angle away from the stem Stems smooth and hairless Stem color reddish brown to dark green Small but numerous lenticels on stem, Rounded buds that hug the stem Hairy stems and hairy leaf veins Stem color tan to pea-green Large lenticels (bumps) on stem, Slender Angle sharply out from stem Usually fall off in June, Broad Cover the buds Remain on the stem through September, American Chestnut Burs: A dense mass of long, slender spines Spines are 2 to 3 cm long, 0.5 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur, Chinese Chestnut Burs: A sparse mass of short, thick spines Spines are 1 to 2 cm long, 1 mm thick Up to 3 nuts per bur, American Chestnuts: Nuts are relatively small, 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter Tips of American chestnuts are pointed Nuts are hairy over 1/3 to 2/3 of length from pointed end Vascular bundles in a sunburst pattern on hilum end 2 to 3 nuts in each bur, Chinese Chestnuts: Nuts are relatively large, 3/4 to 2 inches in diameter Tips of Chinese chestnuts are rounded Only the tips of the nuts are hairy Vascular bundles in a diffuse pattern on hilum end 2 to 3 nuts in each bur. Sunscald – One of the chestnut tree problems that can look like blight is called sunscald. It is native to forests, thickets, slopes, ravines and roadsides in northern China. The Chinese chestnut tree grows alternating, oblong leaves that have sharp, pointed teeth around the edges. In the provinces of Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, and Zhejiang, and also to Taiwan and Korea. Notice the leaf shape and color is hard to distinguish for the F1 hybrid. American Nut —— Chinese Nut Chestnut trees are of moderate growth rate (for the Chinese chestnut tree) to fast-growing for American and European species. European chestnut (Castanea sativa) is also susceptible to these chestnut diseases, but Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant. The pod of the American chestnut has a thicker growth of hairlike spikes on the outside. Of the 6-8 trees we purchased - three have survived and two finally developed burrs this year. The scientific name of the nut is Castanea mollissima. Within 30 years, there were very few left in their native range. [1][2], When cultivated close to other species of chestnut (including Japanese chestnut, C. crenata; American chestnut, C. dentata; and sweet chestnut, C. sativa), Chinese chestnut readily cross-pollinates with them to form hybrids. [8] The nuts also provide a significant food source for wildlife. Horse chestnut and buckeyes have a shiny pod with fewer, bumpy spikes. Chinese chestnut trees (Castanea mollissima) are medium tall trees with spreading branches. Except … The chestnut tree produces clusters of edible nuts. List of various diseases cured by Sweet Chestnut. mollissima (Blume) Pampanini; C. vulgaris Lamarck var. Chinese chestnut, Chinese hairy chestnut, châtaignier de Chine, chinesische Kastanie, shinaguri, Rōmaji castaño chino are common names of Chinese chestnut. 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