- Externe Gründe: auf Änderungen der Anforderungen oder der Umgebungsbedingungen in einer Gemeinschaft reagieren – politische Situation (Verlegung des Regierungssitzes), Veränderungen der Gesellschaft (Bedeutung sozialer Schichten), Veränderungen von Macht und Einfluss (USA unabhängig, eigene Sprachstandards), kulturelle Veränderungen (religiöse Schulen – staatliche Schulen), neue Technologien und Produkte (Buchdruck – Schriftsprache), Import innovativer Produkte (Originalnamen übernommen) - It only takes five minutes Kultureller Kntakt der Erfinder mit griech. Cambridge University Press, 2014). Otto Jespersen on Language as Play (1922), Divided Views on the Origins of Language (2016), The Sound 'Schwa' With Definition and Examples in English, Key Events in the History of the English Language, Sound Symbolism in English: Definition and Examples, The Theory of Poverty of the Stimulus in Language Development, Definition and Examples of Linguistic Prestige, Where Does Language Come From? The evolution of human language has puzzled linguists, biologists and psychologists, as its relevance is also professionally important for clinicians and … Thanks to the rise of the British Empire, advances in technology and the Industrial Revolution between 1760 and 1840, new words began to emerge. - Semantik: Wörter ändern durch Gebrach die Bedeutung, Veränderung konnotativer Bedeutung (Weib – wife), Bezeichnungen für technische Geräte als Metaphern, - in Stein gemeißelte Inschriften - Sprachinterne Gründe (nicht Auslöser, aber Folgeerscheinung): phonetisch motiviert (an Wortstämme Suffixe), Systemvereinfachung (Wortableitungen, Wortbildungen, Wortentlehnungen – Ausdrucksstärke erhöhen, Vereinfachungsdruck – Personalpronomen statt Ableitungen), Ökonomie der Bezeichnung (Aufwandsminimierung – Initialen, Abkürzungen), - 2 Verlaufsformen 1.3 Language evolution and biology We start by examining the uniqueness of language in biological terms, in comparison with other animal communication systems. - communicative dimension: languages subject to at least two opposing forces, producers reduce coding effort, recipients prefer coding that is maximally unambiguous and robust against disturbance – languages redundant, bits of information multiply coded (e.g. - phonology: rich system of voiceless and voiced fricatives, retained in Modern English and neighbouring languages The scenario by which language evolved in humans to assist the coordination of working together (as on the pre-historic equivalent of a loading dock) has been nicknamed the 'yo-heave-ho' model. Richard Nordquist. - first verbal forms emerged as words to designate single concepts, first in oral form, symbolic to address abstract concepts, relationship between symbol and concept must be culturally transmitted (learned), growing abstractness and diversification of knowledge made more complex sign structures necessary, - visual representations closely to beginnings of cultural development (cave paintings 30.000 B.C.) - agonistic interaction: contests and aggression between individuals in children, become standard when these generations are adult (social upgrading) – many typical characteristics never upgraded is that it did. verwendet This theory came in the 18th century and was the work … . Now, in this issue of Current Biology , Hruschka and colleagues [3] have identified regular sound change as a process similar to concerted evolution … .. In the 'poo-poo' model, language started from emotional interjections. - symbolic alphabet in Sinai (semitic alphabet), elaborated by Phoenicians and Greek through inventory of vowels and consonants - Syntax: AltE noch OVS (Objekt, Verb, Subjekt), Flexionsendungen verloren, daher Rollenbeziehung durch fixierte Satzstellung SPO . Such a structural definition is valuable as a matter of convenience, as a way of delimiting a field of concern. - Humans evolved from primate animals - universal sentence constituents – indicative of biological structures of human brain, - language evolved as concomitant of cultural development – need emerged as knowledge of world developed This can only enrich our understanding of how these instrumentalities function. - top-down process: by decisions made in influential institutions, secure social diffusion (e.g. The functions of language … extreme rise of loanwords from Anglo-Norman French in English after 1066 – Middle English), changes in economy and technology, - standardisation of language: descriptive attitude, lexicography and language teaching have normative-descriptive attitude, achieve better standardisation of language and language teaching (dictionaries and grammar guides) ..  [P]rimitive speech . Language has been and always will be gestural (at least until we evolve a reliable and universal capacity for mental telepathy). - withdrawal of Roman legions in 499 A.D., left cultural infrastructure and settlements with Latin names, - Germanic people increasingly arrived and settled south and east of British Isles, small kingdoms emerged (Alfred the Great – Wessex as leading kingdom), - Old English: Engleland for “land of the Angles”, - language of settlers in contact with Latin, Celtic and Old Danish – language mixing, - Battle of Hastings, 1066: beginning of Norman rule, mixing of Germanic and Romance language, end of Old English (exclusively Germanic), - manuscripts: scattered inscriptions (in Runic alphabet), no written evidence, - literate age began under leadership of St.Augustine in 597, developed in monasteries -> translation of church-related texts, - transfer of orally transmitted bits of poetry into written form (Beowolf), - descriptive texts: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, - Old English no longer readable without specific bits of knowledge, - spelling: two different characters to represent Modern English dental fricative, - phonemes: sch represented as sc, dsch as different phonemes like g and j, - lexicon: majority of words Germanic origin, but have been replaced now, - morpho-syntax: Old English highly inflected language, strict word order regulations not necessary – noun inflection in stem-gender-case-number (Modern English: two inflectional endings – genitive case and singular/plural); verb inflection tendency for simplification of morphological verbal system (strong verbs converted into weak verbs, 4 defining forms for strong verbs reduced to 3 and then 2, past form assumed present meaning, modal verbs no -s ending or infinitive), - Runenschrift: Angelsachsen nicht schreibkundig, keine schriftlichen Dokumente, runisches Zeichensystem = Futhark, Rune bedeutet Geheimnis, ursprünglich Verschlüsselungsverfahren, Ähnlichkeit mit Buchstaben -> wahrscheinl. 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